真知即所以为行,不行不足谓之知。

【非谓语动词】阐述及例句

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英语中单个的动词(以v.表示)只能充当谓语,那么如果想让v.充当主语、宾语、标语、同位语、状语、补语、独立成分等,则需要改变v.的形式。具体方法有四种:


v.变为不定式(to v.)

现在分词(v.-ing)

动名词(v.-ing)

过去分词(v.-ed)

失去了动词的特点,不再具有动词属性。

分类及功能:

  

作名词

(主语、宾语)

做形容词

(定语、表语、补语)

做副词

(状语)

to do

doing

■(动名词

done

  

 
 

To be or not to be,that is the question. |不定式充当主语。指代that

 
 

Seeing is believing.|眼见为实。|seeing动名词作主语、believing充当表语。

 
 

He came running into the room.|他跑进了房间。现在分词充当状语,修饰came.

 
 

The prisoner came in,followed by a guard.过去分词作状语

 
 

一般规律

(1)非谓语作定语时通常置于名词之后(后置定语),即:n+to do/doing/done;

(2)非谓语作状语时通常的形式是:to do/doing/done,句子。或:句子,to do/doing/done.

如果不定式在前,通常是目的状语从句。不定式在后面,往往是结果状语从句,也有可能是目的状语。

 

 

做非谓语的重要顺序,先看主被动关系,然注意看时间,从时间点看。

 

例句:

1、When Mrs.Richards walked towards him,he feld,slamming the door behind him.

doing 短语做伴随状语

 
 

2To understand the situation completely requires more thought than we expected.

动词不定式短语做主语(没有逗号,通常不是充当状语了)

 
 

3、It is almost impossible to take your mind off the journey.

动词不定式短语做主语,it是形式主语。

英语句子不喜欢头重脚轻。

 
 

4、The baby pulls the tablecloth off the table,smashing half your best crockery and cutting himself in the process.

孩子把桌布从桌子上扯了下来,将家中最好的陶制器具半数摔碎,同时也弄伤了自己。

现在分词作状语(句子,doing ,通常doing是状语结构)

doing短语做伴随状语

 
 

5、Those planning a trip to remote areas,or intending to live in countries where drinking water is not readily available,should know about the various possible methods for making water safe.

那些计划去偏远地区旅行、或在饮用水不现成的国家居住的人,应该知道如何使水适于引用的各种方法。

主语是Those,谓语是should know

planning,intending 名词后面紧挨着的非谓语,通常为后置定语

(doing短语做后置定语),翻译成汉语时经常定语前移,更符合汉语思维逻辑,相反,英语通常定语后置。

 
 

6、Mr.Green stood up in defense of the 16-year-old boy,saying that he was not the one to blame.

saying 做伴随状语

格林先生站起来以保护那个16岁的男孩,并说那个男孩不应当被指责。

为什么是to blame ? 按常理应该是被动,好象是包含了被动语态。

但是,blame这个词,尽管是被动含义是主动表被动。

例如:

If anyone’s to blame, it’s me. 如果有人该承担责任,那就是我。

Which driver was to blame for the accident? 哪个司机是此次事故的肇事者?

既有主动表被动,又有将来。

 
 

7、It remains to be seen whether Jim will be fit enough to play in the finals(决赛).

吉姆在决赛前是否能彻底康复还有待观察。(形式主语句)

不定式表将来,还表被动,而且根据前面的表格,过去分词不充当主语成分。

 
 

8、When comparing different cultures,we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities.

在比较不同文化时,我们通常只注意其不同点,而忽略了他们许多的相似之处。

做非谓语的重要顺序,先看主被动关系,然注意看时间,从时间点看。

when comparing=when we are comparing

 
 

9、Faced with so much trouble,we failed to completed the task on time.

因为遇到如此多的困难,我们没能按时完成任务。

如果这里用facing,这不能加with,因为facing=faced with

 
 

10Peter received a letter just now saying his grandma would come to see him soon.

不是said,因为said如果理解为过去分词,则有被动含义,如果理解为过去式,则出现两个谓语动词

彼得刚才收到一封信,信上说他祖母很快就过来看他。

 
 

11、As the light turned green,I stood for a moment,not moving,and asked myself what I was going to do.

当交通等变绿时,我站了一会儿没有动,并且问自己到底准备干什么去。

 
 

12、Sorry,With so much work filling my mind,I almost break down.

很抱歉,脑子里装这么多的工作,我几乎要跨掉了。

 
 

 
 

13、Jenny hopes that Mr.Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English improved in a short period.

詹妮希望史密斯老师会提出一个好方法,使他的英语书面表达水平可以在断时间内得以提高。

 
 

14The children went home from the grammar school,their lessons finished for the day.

哪天的课程一结束,孩子们纷纷从那所语法学校里回到家里。

 
 

15、The last one to arrive pays the meal.

最后到的人付饭钱。(从时态分析应该是将来时态,而不是arriving)

 
 

16、The message is important,so it is supposed to be sent as soon as possible.

这条信息很重哟,所以要尽快发出去。

 
 

 
 

17、They are accustomed to not talking at meals.

be accustomed to doing 在这里,to是个介词。习惯于,适应于。

 
 

18、It is one of the funnist things found on the internet so far this year.

这是今年到目前为止在因特网上找到的最滑稽可笑的事情之一。

so far 已经把时态确定了,所以不是being found,而是found

 
 

19、We finished the run in less than half the time allowed.

我们花了不到规定时间的一般,就结束了这次赛程。

 
 

20、The trees blown down in the strom have been moved off the road.

在暴风雨中被刮倒的树已经被搬离了道路。


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未经允许不得转载:Living in the flow » 【非谓语动词】阐述及例句

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