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Covid-19 Prevention and Control Plan

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Covid-19 Prevention and Control Plan

Editor

Reviewer:

Approver:

Novotel Sihanoukville Holiday Resort Project

Project Manager

Covid-19 Prevention and Control Plan

  1. Project Overview

Novotel Sihanoukville Holiday Resort Project is located in Sihanoukville, Cambodia. The main body of the building is a four-star hotel with a basement on the ground floor. The building area is 30,000 square meters, and it is currently in the renovation phase.

Project name Novotel Sihanoukville Holiday Resort Project
Address Next to the Holiday Casino in Sihanoukville, Cambodia
The client TJN PROPERTIES COMPANY LIMITED
The consultant ARCHETYPE CAMBODIA LTD.
The designer BLOOM ARCHITECTURS
Main contractor China Construction Yangtze (Cambodia) Co., Ltd.
  1. Company (project) local medical situation and epidemic situation

At present, more than 100,000 Covid-19 cases have been diagnosed worldwide except China, of which 37 cases have been confirmed in Cambodia and 1 case has been confirmed in Sihanoukville. As the environment in Sihanoukville has deteriorated in recent years, infectious diseases have occurred frequently. At the same time, local medical conditions are poor, medical equipment is lagging behind, and the technical quality of medical staff is not high, making it difficult to diagnose Covid-19.

3. Prevention and Control Principles

Adhere to the principle of combining prevention and disposal, and establish a prevention and control management mechanism based on the requirements of “unified leadership, comprehensive coordination, classified management, hierarchical responsibility, and enterprise-land convergence”, “through up and down, multi-party interaction, coordinated and orderly, and efficient operation”.

4. Organization and responsibilities

The members of the project’s prevention and control management team are all currently employees:

Leader: Zhang Chao

Deputy Leader: Liu Shuang

Team members: You Xin, Wang Xiaohui, Li Manjie, Chen Xu, Wang Rui, Huang Wei, and Lan Bin.

4.1 The main duties of the leading group:

(1) Formulate an emergency plan for the prevention and control of pneumonia caused by new coronavirus infection.

(2) Establish and improve the responsibility system for pneumonia prevention and control of new coronavirus infections, and check and urge the implementation of relevant prevention and control measures.

(3) In the event of a safety emergency, the person in charge is responsible for directing and coordinating the relevant personnel to reach the scene quickly and take corresponding countermeasures.

(4) Arrange personnel to carry out related prevention or rescue work.

(5) Control the situation to further deteriorate in a timely manner according to the situation, and report to the health unit and related superior units in a timely manner.

(6) Command coordination to do a good job in the aftercare of the project.

4.2 Member Duties

Zhang Chao: The first person responsible for the prevention and control of the new coronavirus pneumonia of the project is responsible for the overall organization and leadership and command and coordination.

Liu Shuang: Responsible for the team leader, responsible for organizing and implementing the prevention and control of new pneumonia; responsible for establishing an emergency system for epidemic situation control and checking and supervising implementation; collecting epidemic prevention work documents and carrying out irregular implementation.

You Xin: mainly assists in establishing and controlling the emergency system for epidemic situation control and inspection.

Li Manjie: Coordinate and coordinate the sanitation and disinfection of all parts of the project, the temperature measurement of the general contract management personnel, and the coordination of various epidemic prevention and control materials.

Lan Bin and Chen Xu: Responsible for the temperature measurement of subcontracted personnel.

Wang Xiaohui: Do a good job in the management of project personnel’s entry and exit accounts, and strictly control the entry of foreign personnel (especially in Hubei epidemic area).

Huang Wei: Responsible for the routine inspection of the entrances and exits of the project. Anyone found to have abnormal body temperature should contact the hospital for medical treatment.

4.3 Emergency reporting procedure:

5. Control measures

5.1 Strengthen epidemic observation

5.1.1 Distribute masks to all workers entering construction site, use 0.2% concentration of 84 disinfectant and spray regularly for disinfection every day, and at the same time enhance the air circulation in the concentrated area of the workers. Each subcontractors should regularly measure body temperature of all workers with thermometer or temperature gun with highest responsible manner and record. Once any individual gets fever (body temperature higher than 37.3 ℃), they must be sent to a designated hospital for testing immediately.

5.1.2 Set temperature measurement points at the entrance and exit of the construction site. Only personnel with normal body temperature should be allowed to enter. Entry is restricted to outsiders. Any visitor will required to have body temperature measured with a temperature gun or thermometer for investigation, anyone with a fever (temperature above 37.3 ℃) is prohibited from entering the project and will be sent to a designated hospital for testing immediately.

5.1.3 Set up a temperature measurement office in the office area / dormitory of the managerial staff, conduct measurement and inspection twice a day, record and collect the measurement results at the same time.

5.1.4 Before entering the site, the personnel of the subcontractors shall notify us for approval 3 days in advance, and be quarantined for 14 days after the arrival, and report the quarantine location before entering the site for operation.

5.1.5 All personnel of the general and subcontracting units should not go abroad as far as possible. If they really need to go in or out of the country, they must report to the company in accordance with the regulations of the head office, and travel only after the company and the bureau head office have approved the travel record.

5.1.6 For the employees mechanical and electrical subcontractor, in the upcoming Khmer New Year festival, it is recommended that workers stay as much as possible in the project. If some do need to go home, after returning to the project site, they need to go to the designated place for 14 days quarantine before entering the site.

5.2 Develop observation space

Isolation rooms should be set up in the project site. Our project’s management personnel, after 14 days of self-isolation, can return to the project to work.

In principle, subcontracting and decoration of China Construction Oriental Decoration (both Chinese workers), as far as possible, recruit sub-contractors as far as possible. Isolate and observe the newly-arrived workers for 14 days. It is necessary to detect symptoms such as fever, dry cough, and fatigue. Seek medical attention in a timely manner, and temporarily isolate those who are in close contact with each other. If you suspect something, report it to the country team immediately.

5.3 Comprehensive disinfection

5.3.1 Environmental countertops and floors should be disinfected at least once a day. Workers’ dormitories, management office areas, canteens and other office areas, regularly use 0.2% -0.5% concentration of 84 disinfectant (2000 ml of water added to 10 ml of 84 disinfectant) to wipe the tables and chairs, door handles, curtains, etc. It mops the floor and sprays wet floor mats; spray 1% concentration of 84 disinfectant solution (1000ml of water plus 10ml of 84 disinfectant solution) to spray the disinfection of toilets and toilet floors and make disinfection records.

5.3.2 Regularly ventilate office and living areas, at least 3 times a day, at least 30 minutes each time. Keep a distance of more than 1 meter between people in the office area, and wear masks when multiple people work.

5.3.3 The canteen should be regularly disinfected three times a day. Use 0.2% -0.5% concentration of 84 disinfectant (2000 ml of water and 10 ml of 84 disinfectant) to wipe the table, tables and chairs; use 1% concentration of 84 disinfectant (1000 ml of water and 10 ml of 84 disinfectant) to mop the floor. The tableware used in the canteen should be sterilized by the boiling method (30-60 minutes after the water is boiled) or a disinfection cabinet. The disinfected tableware should be protected against fly and rodents and dust. Avoid re-contamination before use.

5.4 Stockpile

The project department should stores at least two months of prevention and control materials (masks, disinfectant, alcohol, etc.), and food such as instant noodle.

5.5 Distributing hygiene protection supplies

The project should prepare two months of epidemic prevention supplies. It is required to avoid going out to crowded places as much as possible. If you must go, you need to wear personal protective equipment such as masks. For people who have a history of exposure to the disease transmission area, their temperature should be measured at least twice a day. Fever (temperature above 37.3 ℃) will be immediately sent to Taikang Hospital for a fever diagnosis.

The subcontractors must ensure that the masks of its management personnel and workers are distributed and worn in place. Those who do not wear masks are strictly forbidden to enter the project and penalize 200 USD per person for violation of this regulation.

5.6 Strengthen joint defense and control

5.6.1 The project strictly implements the personnel entry and enclose coltrol system, and manages the entrance and exit of personnel by special personnel. Wang Rui is responsible for the living area, Lan Bin is responsible for the service building, and Wang Xiaohui and Chen Xu are responsible for the main building area.

5.6.2 Do a good job of monitoring the temperature of all people entering and leaving. Focus on the prevention and control of key populations, key locations, and foreign vehicles and personnel in confined spaces.

5.6.3 Strictly check the status of construction personnel and management personnel and register in real-name system, and update the admission ID card based on the ID / passport number submitted by the subcontractor, and uniformly number each management personnel and workers. Try to avoid the admission of Wuhan migrant workers from Hubei before the pneumonia epidemic was under control. Find out if the personnel are of Wuhan nationality, whether they have been to Wuhan recently, and whether they have been in close contact with Wuhan nationality personnel.

5.6.4 Organize a large-scale project epidemic inspection every two days, report the whole project to criticize violations, and impose fines.

5.7 Pay attention to personal hygiene

5.7.1 Wash your hands frequently: Remember to wash your hands when you go out, come back in contact with garbage, and before and after meals. When washing your hands, pay attention to running water and using soap or hand sanitizer. The rubbing duration according to the “six-step hand-washing method” should be no less than 15 seconds. In the absence of water, use a disposable hand sanitizer.

5.7.2 Wearing a mask: Wear a mask when going to work, supermarkets, markets, hospitals, etc., especially when going to the hospital. Chefs and helpers must wear masks during food contact, and employees must wear masks during taking meals. Return to the dormitory whenever possible. It is also necessary to pay attention to wearing masks. Ordinary medical surgical masks are disposable products and need to be replaced after 4 hours of wearing. It is recommended to bring a few more masks with you for replacement.

6. Emergency response to the epidemic

If a Covid-19 epidemic occurs in our construction site, according to the warning situation, our project department will start corresponding emergency response respectively.

6.1 Three-level response (1 or more cases of fever in the project)

The project department shall maintain normal working, production and living order. On the basis of adherence to daily prevention and control measures, the following measures were taken in a timely manner:

6.1.1 The construction site strictly implements the epidemic reporting system; strengthens the work area, dormitory air circulation and disinfection protection; strictly implements the《People’s Republic of China Infectious Diseases Law》and 《Food Hygiene Work Regulations》, and do a good job of controlling infection for the majority of employees.

6.1.2 Offices, canteens, dormitories and other public places should strengthen ventilation and take necessary disinfection measures. All departments regularly disinfect the work and living areas under their jurisdiction.

6.1.3 The site controls collective activities, which are subject to the approval of the leading group for the prevention and control of Covid-19 epidemic.

6.1.4 Strictly implement the gate management system for entering and exiting construction sites.

6.1.5 Strengthen the monitoring of the patient’s temperature, and take a temperature measurement every two hours and report it.

6.2 Secondary-level response

(1 or more cases of persistent fever in the project ( 8 hours in a row of continuous body temperature detection exceeded 37.3 ℃))

In addition to the isolation and control of close contacts, maintain normal work, production and living order. Based on adherence to the three-level epidemic prevention and control measures, the following measures were taken in a timely manner:

6.2.1 All employees are forbidden to go out if necessary. If they must go out, personal protection work is required.

6.2.2 Regularly disinfect offices, conference rooms, canteens, and staff dormitories.

6.2.3 Strengthen the access control of the construction site and strictly control the entry of foreign personnel into the construction site.

6.2.4 According to the situation, the construction site shall timely notify the staff of the prevention and control work.

6.3 Primary-level response

(1 suspected patient in the project department (continuous fever, cough, sore throat, chest tightness, dyspnea, mild poor appetite, weak mental fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, etc.)

On the basis of adherence to the secondary epidemic prevention and control measures, the following measures were taken in a timely manner:

6.3.11. Strict implementation and inspection of various preventive measures. All employees have the obligation and responsibility to report the situation of patients with infectious diseases and their close contacts in a timely manner.

6.3.2 The implementation of closed-site management, employees do not leave the site, and foreign non-professional medical personnel are strictly prohibited from entering the site.

6.3.3 Comprehensively disinfect the epidemic locations and contacts, and adjust the time of collective activities and meetings. Facilities such as offices and conference rooms must implement ventilation and disinfection measures one by one.

6.3.4 Suspected patients were sent to a designated hospital (Sihanoukville People’s Hospital) for centralized treatment. The project strictly implements patient emergency transfer procedures to prevent infections caused by patients seeking their own consultations.

6.3.5 The other personnel of the project shall normally produce, work and live.

6.4 Exceeding the Prevention plan

After special circumstances (mainly epidemic outbreaks in territories, government directives and other higher-level epidemics, etc.) should be decided by the leading group, the group leader should report to the superior unit in time to take corresponding measures.

7.    End response

The patient was excluded as a case of Covid-19 epidemic and no new cases of fever occurred. The epidemic prevention and control team released the emergency response to the epidemic.

8. Outbreak surveillance and information reporting

8.1 The project and subcontractors need to set up an epidemic prevention and control liaison officer who is responsible for collecting and summarizing the physical conditions of the Contractor and subcontractors personnel, and timely reporting to the country team on the migrant population, and the temperature of the personnel present.

8.2 Establish an epidemic monitoring and early warning mechanism and implement dynamic information reporting. The members of the prevention and control team will report the epidemic information to the team leader’s office by 18:00 every day. No concealment, omission or late reporting.

8.3 The project epidemic prevention and control liaison officer guarantees that the mobile phone can communicate 24 hours a day. In case of major events, the first responsible person should ensure timely disposal.

9. Strengthen publicity and education

9.1 The project actively connects with relevant medical departments in the local area to provide effective protection for the majority of employees.

9.2 Provide related consulting services for the majority of employees, and invite doctors to the project for epidemic prevention and control training.

9.3 Special presentations on the prevention and treatment of Covid-19 epidemic for health managers and staff, especially staff of canteens and dormitories. Enhance their awareness of health and disease prevention and a high sense of professional responsibility and ethics.

9.4 The project department and subcontractors must focus on the safety education and training of workers, improve workers’ safety awareness, and emphasize the prohibition of co-drinking, outing and entertainment. The education and training of local chemical workers must use Khmer to achieve real training results.

9.5 Actively carry out preventive propaganda and legal education with posters, publicity windows, etc .; through knowledge lectures, popularize preventive knowledge and improve the preventive capacity of all employees. Guide employees to establish a good sense of hygiene, wash their hands frequently, pay attention to indoor ventilation, and develop good hygiene habits.

9.6 Make full use of regular production meetings, safety education meetings, pre-class meetings, lectures, bulletin boards, etc. to educate employees on epidemic prevention, teach them highly targeted prevention knowledge, and effectively enhance their awareness of health and disease prevention; educate employees to take the initiative to maintain the environment Hygiene, develop good personal hygiene habits.

9.7 The project fully educates employees not to publish or forward false information on the Internet without verification to avoid adverse social impact.

Novotel Sihanoukville Resort Project Manager, Cambodia

2020-3-19

Annex 1: National Emergency General Hospital “Handbook of Knowledge on Prevention and Control of Pneumonia of New Coronavirus Infection”

Table of Contents

1. Working area protection knowledge

1.1 How to do it on the way to work

1.2 How to do the entry work

1.3 How to do office work

1.4 How to attend a meeting

1.5 How to make a meal in the cafeteria

1.6 How to do it on the way to work

1.7 How to do official procurement

1.8 How to do the workplace exercise

1.9 How to do in public areas

1.10 How to do business travel

1.11 How to do logistics

1.12 How to do a business visit

1.13 How to circulate documents

1.14 How to do phone disinfection

1.15 How to do air conditioning disinfection

1.16 How to dispose of waste masks

2. Personal protection knowledge

2.1 Hand washing

2.1.1 How do I protect myself from new coronavirus infections?

2.1.2 What is the role of hand washing in preventing respiratory-borne diseases?

2.1.3 The six-step hand-washing method must be mastered for proper hand-washing

2.1.4 When do I need to wash my hands?

2.1.5 What can I do if I do n’t have clean water when I ‘m traveling?

2.2 Wearing masks

2.2.1 How to choose a mask?

2.2.2 Proper use of masks

2.2.3 How do special people wear masks?

3. Home protection knowledge

3.1 How to prevent new coronavirus transmission at home?

3.2 How should we eat when the new coronavirus pneumonia is epidemic?

3.3 How can I prevent new coronavirus infections in public places?

3.4 When purchasing from the fresh market, how to prevent the transmission of new coronavirus?

3.5 Home isolation recommendations for mild fever cases.

4. Covid-19 knowledge

4.1 What is a new coronavirus?

4.2 Who is susceptible to the new coronavirus?

4.3 What are the routes of transmission of the new coronavirus?

4.4 Can the new coronavirus be transmitted from person to person?

4.5 What is droplet spread?

4.6 What is contact transmission?

4.7 What are close contacts?

4.8 Attention to close contacts

4.9 Close contact monitoring recommendations

4.10 What are the clinical manifestations of patients with new coronavirus pneumonia?

4.11 How to identify and observe new cases of coronavirus pneumonia in the clinic

4.12 Prevention and Control of New Coronavirus Pneumonia

5. Medical treatment process

5.1 When to see a doctor

5.2 Precautions when visiting a doctor

1. Working area protection knowledge

1.1 How to do it on the way to work

Wear disposable medical masks properly. Try not to use public transportation. Walking, cycling, or taking a private car or shuttle to work is recommended. If you must use public transportation, you must wear a mask all the way. Try to avoid touching the contents of the car with your hands during the journey.

1.2 How to do the entry work

Before entering the office building, consciously take a temperature test. If the body temperature is normal, you can enter the building and wash your hands in the bathroom. If the body temperature exceeds 37.2 ℃, please do not go into the building to work, go home and observe the rest, if necessary, go to the hospital for treatment.

1.3 How to do office work

Keep the office area clean. It is recommended to ventilate 3 times a day for 20-30 minutes each time. Keep warm when ventilating. Keep a distance of more than 1 meter from person to person, and wear a mask when multiple people work. Wash your hands frequently and drink plenty of water, and insist on washing your hands strictly according to the six-step method before eating and after going to the toilet. Receiving outsiders wear masks.

1.4 How to attend a meeting

It is recommended to wear a mask and wash your hands before entering the meeting room. The meeting staff should be more than 1 meter apart. Reduce centralized meetings and control meeting time. When the meeting time is too long, open the window and ventilate once. The venue and furniture must be disinfected after the meeting. Tea supplies are recommended to be immersed in water for disinfection.

1.5 How to make a meal in the cafeteria

Use divided meals to avoid crowded people. The restaurant is disinfected once a day, and the tables and chairs are disinfected after use. Cutlery must be sterilized at high temperature. The operation room should be kept clean and dry. It is strictly forbidden to mix raw food and cooked food, and avoid raw meat. Suggest a nutritious meal, light and delicious.

1.6 How to do it on the way to work

After washing your hands, wear a disposable medical mask to go out. After you return to your home, remove your mask and wash your hands first. Wipe the phone and keys with a sterile wipe or 75% alcohol. Keep the room ventilated and hygienic to avoid crowds.

1.7 How to do official procurement

You must wear a mask to avoid crowds. Keep in contact with people at a distance of more than 1 meter and avoid staying in public places for long periods.

1.8 How to do the workplace exercise

Proper and moderate activities are recommended to ensure good health. Avoid excessive and excessive exercise, which will reduce the body’s immunity.

1.9 How to do in public areas

Daily disinfection of public areas such as halls, corridors, conference rooms, elevators, stairs, toilets, etc., using spray disinfection as much as possible. Separate cleaning utensils for each area to avoid mixing.

1.10 How to do business travel

It is recommended to wipe the interior of the car and door handle with 75% alcohol once a day. Masks are required to ride the shuttle bus. It is recommended that the shuttle bus and door handles be wiped and disinfected with 75% alcohol after use.

1.11 How to do logistics

Service personnel, security personnel, and cleaning personnel must wear masks while working, and keep a safe distance from people. Canteen purchasers or suppliers must wear masks and disposable rubber gloves to avoid direct contact with fresh meat and poultry materials. Wash hands and disinfect them immediately after removing gloves. Cleaning staff must wear disposable rubber gloves when working, and wash their hands after disinfection. Security personnel must wear masks to work, and carefully inquire and register the status of outsiders, and report any abnormalities in a timely manner.

1.12 How to do a business visit

Wear a mask. Before entering the office building, first take a temperature test and introduce the history of contact in Hubei and the symptoms of fever, cough, and poor breathing. Without the above conditions, and the body temperature is under the normal conditions of 37.2 °, you can enter the building for business.

1.13 How to circulate documents

Wash your hands before and after transferring paper documents, and wear a face mask when transferring documents.

1.14 How to do phone disinfection

It is recommended that the landline phone be wiped twice a day with 75% alcohol, and can be increased to four times if used frequently.

1.15 How to do air conditioning disinfection

1.15.1 When the fan coil unit of the central air-conditioning system is in normal use, the air supply and return air outlets are regularly disinfected.

1.15.2 When the central air conditioning fresh air system is in normal use, if an epidemic situation occurs, do not stop the fan operation. After the personnel has evacuated, the exhaust branch pipe should be closed. After a period of operation, the fresh air exhaust system should be shut down and disinfected.

1.15.3 The full air system with return air should be completely closed to ensure that the system operates in the fresh air.

1.16 How to dispose of waste masks

During epidemic prevention, hand hygiene should be done before and after removing masks. Discard masks should be placed in trash cans, and the trash can should be disinfected with 75% alcohol or chlorine-containing disinfectant twice daily.

2. Personal protection knowledge

2.1 Hand washing

2.1.1 How to protect yourself from the pneumonia infection of the new coronavirus?

(1) Washing your hands frequently. Use soap or hand sanitizer and wash your hands with running water. Wipe your hands with disposable tissues or clean towels. Washing hands immediately after touching respiratory secretions (such as after sneezing).

(2) Keeping good habits of respiratory hygiene. When coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue, towel, etc. Washing your hands after coughing or sneezing, and avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth with your hands.

(3) Enhancing physical fitness and immunity. Keeping a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and working and resting to avoid excessive fatigue.

(4) Keeping the environment clean and ventilated. Open the window several times a day for no less than 3 times, each time 20-30 minutes. When the outdoor air quality is poor, the frequency and time of ventilation should be appropriately reduced.

(5) Minimizing activities in crowded places and avoid contact with patients with respiratory infections.

(6) If symptoms of respiratory tract infections such as cough, runny nose, fever, etc appear, people should be isolated at home and rest, go to see a doctor as soon as the fever persists or symptoms worsen.

2.1.2 The role of hand washing in preventing respiratory-borne diseases?

Proper hand washing is one of the most effective measures to prevent diarrhea and respiratory infections. Authorities such as the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the WHO, and the CDC in the United States all recommend washing hands thoroughly with soap and water (running water).

2.1.3 To properly wash your hands, you need to master six-step washing methods:

Step 1: Rub the palms of the hands together (fold your hands together and rub five times)

Step 2: Scrub your fingers with your hands crossed.

Step 3: Rub the palms of your hands against the palms of your hands.

Step 4: Scrub your palms with your fingertips, the left and right hands are the same (put your fingertips in your palms and rub each other five times)

Step 5: Hold the thumb of the other hand and scrub, rub the left and right hands five times.

Step 6: Bend your fingers so that the joint rotates and rubs in the palm of the other hand.

2.1.4 When do I need to wash my hands?

(1) Before and after passing the file

(2) After coughing or sneezing

(3) Before, during and after preparing food

(4) Before eating

(5) After going to the toilet

(6) When hands are dirty

(7) After contacting others

(8) After contact with animals

(9) After going out

2.1.5 Travelling outside without clear water, inconvenient wash hands, how to do?

You can use alcohol-based disinfection products to clean your hands. Human coronavirus is not resistant to acids and alkalis, and is sensitive to organic solvents and disinfectants. 75% alcohol inactivates the virus, so a certain concentration of alcohol-containing disinfection products can be used as an alternative to soap and running water.

2.2 Masks

2.2.1 How to choose a mask?

Option 1: Disposable medical masks, replace them for 4 hours continuously, and replace them immediately after pollution or humidity;

Option 2: N95 medical protective mask, worn for 4 hours, and replaced immediately after contamination or moisture.

Cotton masks and sponge masks are not recommended.

2.2.2 Use masks properly

How to use medical masks:

(1) The mask is dark in color on the front side, and the front side should be outward, and there is a metal clip on the nosepiece on the medical mask.

(2) The face facing the face should be the opposite side of the medical mask, that is, the side with a lighter color. In addition, pay attention to the part with the metal strip above the mask, and don’t wear it upside down.

(3) After distinguishing the front, back, upper, and lower ends of the mask, wash your hands first to determine whether the mask is correct, and then hang the rope on the ears at both ends.

(4) The last step is also the metal strip problem mentioned earlier. After wearing the mask, you need to press the metal strips on both sides of the bridge of the nose with both hands to make the upper end of the mask close to the bridge of the nose, and then stretch the mask downward to keep the mask free of wrinkles, and it is best to cover the nose and mouth.

2.2.3 How do special people wear masks?

(1) Pregnant women wearing protective masks should pay attention to their own conditions and choose products with good comfort.

(2) The elderly and patients with chronic diseases of the heart and lung may cause discomfort after wearing, and even worsen the original condition. Professional guidance from a doctor should be sought.

(3) The child is in the stage of growth and development, and his face is small, so choose a child-proof mask.

3. Home-living protection knowledge

3.1 How to prevent novel coronavirus pneumonia infection at home?

(1) Enhance health awareness, exercise properly, ensure sleep, do not stay up late can improve their own immunity;

(2) Keep good personal hygiene habit, cover mouth and nose with paper towel when coughing or sneezing, wash hands thoroughly and often, do not touch eyes, nose or mouth with dirty hands;

(3) Ventilate the room and keep it clean;

(4) Avoid close contact with people with respiratory symptoms (such as fever, cough or sneeze) as much as possible;

(5) Try to avoid crowded and confined places, such as wearing masks;

(6) Avoid contact with wild animals, poultry and livestock;

(7) Adhere to safe eating habits, eating meat and eggs to be cooked, cooked thoroughly;

(8) Pay close attention to fever, cough and other symptoms, and see a doctor nearby in time if such symptoms occur.

3.2 What should we eat during pandemic of pneumonia of new coronavirus?

(1) Don’t eat animals and products that are already sick; buy chilled poultry from regular sources, and fully cook poultry and egg milk.

(2) Separate cutting boards and knives for raw and cooked food. Wash hands between raw and cooked food.

(3) Even in epidemic-affected areas, meat can be safely eaten if it is thoroughly cooked and properly handled during food preparation.

3.3 How can I prevent pneumonia infection in public places?

(1) Avoid contact with farm animals or wild animals without protection.

(2) Maintain constant ventilation in the workplace. In places with a lot of people, shopping malls, buses, subways, and airplanes are crowded. Wear masks to reduce the risk of exposure to pathogens.

(3) When coughing or sneezing, cover the nose completely with paper towels or sleeves or elbows; throw the used paper towels into closed bins immediately; after coughing and sneezing, wash with soap and water or alcohol-based hand washing liquid Hands.

(4) Wash your hands promptly after going home. If you have fever and other symptoms of respiratory infections, especially persistent fever, go to the hospital in time.

(5) Various parties should be avoided as far as possible during the epidemic season.

3.4 How to prevent the pneumonia infection when purchasing from the fresh market?

(1) Wash hands with soap and water after touching animals and animal products;

(2) Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth;

(3) Avoid contact with sick animals and diseased meat;

(4) Avoid contact with stray animals and waste water in the market.

3.5 Recommendations for mild fever cases quarantined at home:

(1) Place the patient in a well-ventilated single room.

(2) Limit the number of caregivers and try to arrange for a person with good health and no chronic diseases to care. Refuse all visits.

(3) Family members should live in different rooms. If conditions do not permit, keep a distance of at least 1 meter from the patient.

(4) Limit patient activities and minimize patient and family member activity sharing areas. Make sure the shared area (kitchen, bathroom, etc.) is well ventilated (windows open).

(5) The nursing staff and the patient should wear a mask in the same room. The mask should be close to the face. Do not touch or adjust the mask during wearing. Masks must be replaced immediately due to wet and dirty secretions. After removing and discarding the mask, wash your hands.

(6) After having any direct contact with the patient or entering the patient’s isolation space, clean your hands.

4. Covid-19 knowledge

4.1.What is a new coronavirus?

Coronavirus isolated from the lower respiratory tract of patients with unexplained pneumonia is a new type of coronavirus, named by WHO as 2019-nCoV.

4.2 Who is vulnerable to the new coronavirus?

The crowd is generally susceptible. New coronavirus-infected pneumonia can occur in people with low immune function and normal immune function, which is related to the amount of virus exposure.

For people with poor immune function, such as the elderly, pregnant women or people with liver and kidney dysfunction, people with chronic disease, the condition is more severe after infection.

4.3 What are the routes of transmission of new coronaviruses?

The main transmission methods are droplet transmission, contact transmission (including self-vaccination caused by hand contamination), and short-range transmission of respiratory aerosols of different sizes. The current short-distance droplet transmission should be the main way.

4.4 Can the new coronavirus be passed from person to person?

Yes. Judging from the incidence-related order of some clustered cases, the characteristics of human-to-human transmission are obvious, and there is a certain range of community transmission.

4.5 What is droplet spread?

Droplets: Generally considered as water-containing particles with a diameter of> 5um, the drops can enter the susceptible mucosal surface through a certain distance (generally 1 meter).

The generation of droplets:

(1)Cough, sneeze or talk.

(2)Carry out invasive respiratory tract operations, such as sputum suction or tracheal intubation, turning over, back patting, etc. during irritating cough and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, etc.

4.6 What is contact transmission?

Direct contact: Pathogens are transmitted through direct contact with mucous membranes or skin.

(1) Blood or bloody fluid enters the body through mucous membranes or damaged skin

(2) Transmission caused by direct contact with secretions containing a certain pathogen

4.7 What are close contacts?

Refers to a person who has lived or worked with a confirmed or highly suspected case of the virus within 14 days. Including office colleagues, colleagues in the same classroom, dormitory, classmates, and passengers on the same plane. And other forms of direct contacts include escorting patients with viral infections, taking taxis, taking elevators, etc.

4.8 Notes for close contacts

All people (including medical staff) who may be in contact with a suspected infection should have a 14-day health observation period. The observation period starts from the last day of contact with the patient. Seek medical attention as soon as you experience any symptoms, especially fever, respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, or diarrhea!

4.9 Close contact monitoring advice

(1) If the contact person has symptoms, inform the hospital in advance and will go to the hospital.

(2) On the way to the hospital, patients should wear medical masks.

(3) Avoid taking public transportation. Call an ambulance or use a private vehicle to transport patients. If possible, open windows on the road.

(4) Close contacts who are sick should always keep the respiratory tract clean and clean their hands. When standing or sitting on the road and in the hospital, stay as far away as possible from others (at least 1 meter).

(5) The surface of any object contaminated with respiratory secretions or body fluids should be cleaned and disinfected with a disinfectant containing diluted bleach.

4.10 What are the clinical manifestations of patients with pneumonitis infected by new coronavirus?

The onset of pneumonia caused by new coronavirus is mainly manifested by fever, which can be combined with symptoms such as mild dry cough, fatigue, poor breathing, diarrhea, and symptoms such as runny nose and sputum.

Some patients have mild onset symptoms and no fever. They only show headache, palpitation, chest tightness, conjunctivitis, mild sore limbs or lower back muscle. Some patients experienced dyspnea after one week, and the disease progressed rapidly in severe cases. Most patients have a good prognosis, and a few patients are critically ill and even die.

4.11 How to identify and observe pneumonia cases of new coronavirus infection
clinically

Meet the following two conditions at the same time

(1) Epidemiological history: Have a history of travel or residence in disease area within two weeks before the onset, or have contacted patients with fever and respiratory symptoms within 14 days before the onset of infection, whether the epidemic situation of infectious diseases in the residential area is clustered Patients in sexual cases, whether they cause infection to others. Direct or indirect contact history of relevant markets in disease area, especially farmers’ markets.

(2) Clinical manifestations: fever; with imaging characteristics of viral pneumonia; the total number of white blood cells is normal or decreased in the early stage of onset, or the lymphocyte count is decreased. Based on the observation of the case, pathogenic diagnosis can be made by collecting respiratory tract samples such as sputum and throat swabs for viral nucleic acid detection.

4.12 Pneumonia prevention and control measures for new coronavirus infection

•Standard precautions;

•Airborne precautions;

•Contact and droplet precautions: Wash hands frequently and wear a mask when going out;

•Room ventilation;

•Cleaning and disinfection: The new coronavirus is sensitive to heat. Soaking in hot water at 56 ℃ for 30 minutes, 75% alcohol, chlorine-containing disinfectant, chloroform and other fatty solvents can effectively inactivate the virus.

5. Treatment-seeking procedure

5.1 When to see a doctor

The pneumonia patients infected by novel coronavirus mainly showed fever and fatigue, respiratory symptoms were mainly dry cough, and gradually appeared dyspnea. Severe cases were manifested as acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, difficult metabolic metabolic acidosis and dysfunctional coagulation disorder. Some patients have mild onset symptoms and no fever. Most of the patients are mild and have a good prognosis. A few of them are critically ill or even dead. If there is fever, fatigue, dry cough, it does not mean that it has been infected.

However, in case of (1) acute respiratory infection symptoms such as fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.3 ℃), cough, shortness of breath, etc.; (2) travel or residence history in Wuhan, or contact with fever patients with respiratory symptoms from Wuhan within 14 days before the onset of the disease, or small-scale aggregation of the disease; they should go to the local designated medical institutions for screening and diagnosis and treatment.

5.2 Precautions during treatment-seeking

(1) If the contact has symptoms, the designated hospital with fever clinic should be selected in advance.

(2) Masks should be worn on the way to the hospital and during the whole process of medical treatment.

(3) Avoid public transportation. Call an ambulance or use a private vehicle to transport patients. If possible, open the windows on the road.

(4) Close contacts who are ill should always keep their respiratory tract clean and hands clean. When standing or sitting on the road and in the hospital, stay as far away from other people as possible (at least 1 meter).

(5) Any surface contaminated by respiratory secretions or body fluids should be cleaned and disinfected with disinfectant containing diluted bleaching agent.

(6) During medical treatment, the patient’s condition and process should be truthfully detailed, especially the doctor’s recent travel and living history in Wuhan, the contact history of pneumonia patients or suspected patients, and the contact history of animals.


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